Synthesis of the 2014 reports of the scientific, environmental effects, and technology & economic assessment panels of the Montreal Protocol
Research published at a meeting of the Montreal Protocol in Dubai reveals the serious human health and economic consequences averted by concerted and coordinated global action on the protecting the ozone layer. Synthesis of the 2014 Reports of the Scientific, Environmental Effects, and Technology & Economic Assessment Panels of the Montreal Protocol confirms that stratospheric ozone has stabilized and the ozone layer is healing. The ozone layer will have recovered to pre-1980 levels by around 2060-eighty years after Nature magazine published research unveiling the link between manmade chemicals and the degradation of the Earth's ozone layer. As a result of this research, the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, prompting nations to phase out ozone-depleting substances. However, the report says it will take another 60 years for all of the health impacts, in terms of cataracts and skin cancer, to be reversed. The report also notes outstanding issues that remain in the protection of the ozone layer, and the consequences of the introduction of some substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances, which can contribute to climate change. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are replacements for ODS, could jeopardize the substantial climate benefits achieved through the Montreal Protocol.