Adaptive potential of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) limits Bt Trait durability in Brazil
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is the most important corn pest in South America. Larvae feed mostly on leaves, but also ears when population densities are high. This pest has been historically controlled with insecticide applications, but many cases of resistance have limited their efficacy. Transgenic corn varieties expressing Bacillus thuringiensis proteins (Bt corn) have been a widely adopted alternative to insecticides and, in the past 8 yr, have been the primary technology for fall armyworm control in Brazil.