Advanced alternative fuel pathways: technology overview and status

Significant greenhouse gas savings are possible by transitioning from first-generation, food-based biofuels to advanced alternative, non-food based fuels. Advanced biofuels are produced by converting additional chemicals contained in biomass feedstocks, specifically hemicellulose and cellulose, which are more difficult to extract and convert into transport-grade liquid fuels. For this reason, more complex conversion techniques are required. Advanced fuels also can include non-biological pathways, such as power-to-liquid or power-to-gas, which are generically referred to as PtX fuels or electrofuels.