Real-world usage of plug-in hybrid vehicles in Europe: a 2022 update on fuel consumption, electric driving, and CO2 emissions

The potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to reduce fuel consumption and global greenhouse gas emissions depends on how much they are effectively driven on electricity. Earlier studies on the real-world usage of PHEVs certified under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) have shown that those vehicle models are driven much less on electricity than the type-approval procedure assumes. This study presents an analysis of the average real-world fuel consumption and electric driving share of about 9,000 private and company car PHEVs in Europe, with an emphasis on Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) type-approved vehicle models.